Q.1: Describe the origin, course, branches and distribution of right coronary artery. 1+1+2+1
Q.2: What is pleural effusion? What is thoracic paracentesis? Name the structures penetrated by a needle when it passes skin surface to pleural cavity during paracentesis. 1.5+1.5+2
Q.3: Describe the boundaries and contents of superior thoracic aperture (thoracic inlet). What is thoracic inlet syndrome? 2+2+1
Q.4: Describe the respiratory movements during quiet and deep inspiration. What are ‘pump-handle’ and bucket-handle’ movements of thorax? 3+2
Q.5: Give the relations of descending thoracic aorta. Give its branches. 3+2
MCQs of Thorax Anatomy
MCQ s TEST THORAX
- 1. The following statements concerning the trachea are true except which?
(a) It lies anterior to the esophagus in the superior mediastinum.
(b) In deep inspiration, the carina may descend as far as the level of the sixth thoracic vertebra.
(c) The left principal bronchus is wider than the right principal bronchus.
(d) The arch of the aorta lies on its anterior and left sides in the superior mediastinum.
(e) The sensory innervation of the mucous membrane lining the trachea is derived from branches of the vagi and the recurrent laryngeal nerves.
Q.2. The following statements concerning the root of the right lung are true except which?
(a) The right phrenic nerve passes anterior to the lung root.
(b) The azygos vein arches over the superior margin of the lung root.
(c) The right pulmonary artery lies posterior to the principal bronchus.
(d) The right vagus nerve passes posterior to the lung root.
(e) The vessels and nerves forming the lung root are enclosed by a cuff of pleura.
Q.3. The following statements concerning the right lung are true except which?
(a) It possesses a horizontal and an oblique fissure.
(b) Its covering of visceral pleura is sensitive to pain and temperature.
(c) The lymph from the substance of the lung reaches the hilum by the superficial and deep lymphatic plexuses.
(d) The pulmonary ligament permits the vessels and nerves of the lung root to move during the movements of respiration.
(e) The bronchial veins drain into the azygos and hemiazygos veins.
Q.4. The anterior surface of the heart is formed by the following structures except which?
(a) Right ventricle
(b) Right atrium
(c) Left ventricle
(d) Left atrium
(e) Right auricle
Q.5. In a posteroanterior radiograph of the thorax, the following structures form the left margin of the heart shadow except which?
(a) Left auricle
(b) Pulmonary trunk
(c) Arch of aorta
(d) Left ventricle
(e) Superior vena cava
Q.6. All of the following statements concerning the esophagus are correct except which?
(a) It receives an arterial blood supply from both the descending thoracic aorta and the left gastric artery.
(b) It is constricted by the presence of the left principal bronchus.
(c) It crosses from right to left posterior to the descending aorta.
(d) It pierces the diaphragm, with the left vagus on its anterior surface and the right vagus on its posterior surface.
(e) It joins the stomach about 16 in. (41 cm) from the incisor teeth.
Q.7. All of the following statements concerning the mediastinum are correct except which?
(a) The mediastinum forms a partition between the two pleural spaces (cavities).
(b) The mediastinal pleura demarcates the lateral boundaries of the mediastinum.
(c) The heart occupies the middle mediastinum.
(d) Should air enter the left pleural cavity, the structures forming the mediastinum are deflected to the right.
(e) The anterior boundary of the mediastinum extends to a lower level than the posterior boundary.
Q.8. All of the following statements regarding the conducting system of the heart are true except which?
(a) The impulse for cardiac contraction spontaneously begins in the sinuatrial node.
(b) The atrioventricular bundle is the sole pathway for conduction of the waves of contraction between the atria and the ventricles.
(c) The sinuatrial node is frequently supplied by the right and left coronary arteries.
(d) The sympathetic nerves to the heart slow the rate of discharge from the sinuatrial node.
(e) The atrioventricular bundle descends behind the septal cusp of the tricuspid valve.
Q.9. All of the following statements regarding the mechanics of inspiration are true except which?
(a) The diaphragm is the most important muscle of inspiration.
(b) The suprapleural membrane can be raised.
(c) The sternum moves anteriorly.
(d) The ribs are raised superiorly.
(e) The tone of the muscles of the anterior abdominal wall is diminished.
Q.10. The following statements concerning the lungs are correct except which?
(a) Inhaled foreign bodies most frequently enter the right lung.
(b) The left lung is in direct contact with the arch of the aorta and the descending thoracic aorta.
(c) There are no lymph nodes within the lungs.
(d) The structure of the lungs receives its blood supply from the bronchial arteries.
(e) The costodiaphragmatic recesses are lined with parietal pleura.
Q.11. The following statements concerning the blood supply to the heart are correct except which?
(a) The coronary arteries are branches of the ascending aorta.
(b) The right coronary artery supplies both the right atrium and the right ventricle.
(c) The circumflex branch of the left coronary artery descends in the anterior interventricular groove and passes around the apex of the heart.
(d) Arrhythmias (abnormal heart beats) can occur after occlusion of a coronary artery.
(e) Coronary arteries can be classified as functional end arteries.
Q.12. The following statements concerning the bronchopulmonary segments are correct except which?
(a) The veins are intersegmental.
(b) The segments are separated by connective tissue septa.
(c) The arteries are intrasegmental.
(d) Each segment is supplied by a secondary bronchus.
(e) Each pyramid-shaped segment has its base pointing toward the lung surface.
Q.13: A 36-year-old woman with a known history of emphysema (dilatation of alveoli and destruction of alveolar walls with a tendency to form cystic spaces) suddenly experiences a severe pain in the left side of her chest, is breathless, and is obviously in a state of shock.
Examination of this patient reveals the following findings except which?
(a) The trachea is displaced to the right in the suprasternal notch.
(b) The apex beat of the heart can be felt in the fifth left intercostal space just lateral to the sternum.
(c) The right lung is collapsed.
(d) The air pressure in the left pleural cavity is at atmospheric pressure.
(e) The air has entered the left pleural cavity as the result of rupture of one of the emphysematous cysts of the left lung (left-sided pneumothorax).
(f) The elastic recoil of the lung tissue caused the lung to collapse.
Q.14: A wife was told that her husband was suffering from cancer of the lower end of the esophagus. The physician told her that to save his life, the surgeon would have to remove the lower part of the esophagus, the stomach, the spleen, and the upper part of the duodenum. The wife could not understand why such a drastic operation was required to remove such a small tumor.
The following statements explain this extensive operation except which?
(a) Carcinoma of the esophagus tends to spread via the lymphatic vessels.
(b) The lymphatic vessels descend through the aortic opening in the diaphragm to enter the celiac lymph nodes.
(c) The tumor of the esophagus and an area of normal adjacent esophagus have to be removed.
(d) The lymphatic vessels and nodes that drain the diseased area have to be removed.
(e) Because of the risk that retrograde spread had occurred, the other organs draining into the lymph nodes also have to be removed.
Q.15: A 50-year-old man with chronic alcoholism was told by his physician that he had cirrhosis of the liver with portal hypertension.
The following statements explain why the patient recently vomited a cupful of blood except which?
(a) The lower third of the esophagus is the site of a portosystemic anastomosis.
(b) At the lower third of the esophagus the esophageal veins of the left gastric vein anastomose with the esophageal veins of the inferior vena cava.
(c) In cirrhosis of the liver, the portal circulation through the liver is obstructed by fibrous tissue, producing portal hypertension.
(d) Many of the dilated veins that lie within the mucous membrane and submucosa are easily damaged by swallowed food.
(e) Copious hemorrhage from these veins is difficult to treat and is often terminal.
Key of MCQs:
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