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Pharmacology of CNS ( Central Nervous System) Important MCQ Points

Pharmacology of CNS ( Central Nervous System) Important MCQ Points for all Medical Students. MCQs of all systems of Pharmacology will be available in single PDF copy at the main page of MCQs which will be published soon. Keep visiting Educational Blog for latest Medical Stuff.

Important MCQ Points of CNS Pharmacology:

Inhibitory neurotransmitter in the spinal cord …. Glycine…. Antagonized by strychnine
Main excitatory neurotransmitters …. Glutamate aspartate…. Act on NMDA receptors
Benzodiazipines increase frequency of chloride channel opening of GABA chloride channels
Barbiturates prolong duration of chloride Chanel opening of GABA chloride channels
Steeper the dose response curve less safer is the drug and less steeper the dose response curve more safe is the drug
Benzodiazipines have less steeper dose response curve so safer as compared to barbiturates
Antidote for benzodiazipine poisoning is flumazenil
Barbiturates can lead to porphyrrias in susceptible patients
Buspirone is a 5HT3 A1 partial agonist….. Used for the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder
Drug of choice for generalized anxiety disorder ……. SSRIs
Antidote for zolpidem and zaleplon poisoning…., flumazenil
Acute methanol poisoning leads to metabolic acidocis and retinal blindness
Ethylene glycol poisoning leads to metabolic acidocis and nephropathy
Both methanol and ethylene glycol poisoning have antidote…. Methanol or we can use fomepizole
For acute ethanol poisoning ….. Maintain electrolyte give IV dextrose and vit B1 to prevent wernekie Korsakoff’s syndrome
Ethanol withdrawal treated by correcting electrolyte imbalance iv dextrose and diazepam or methadone
Chronic ethanol dependance can be treated by giving acamprosate naltrexone or disulfiram
When disulfram is given and then ethanol…. Severe headache nausea vomiting hypotension
Disulfiram like effect…. Metronidazole griseofulvin cefotetan cefoperazone
Partial and geralized tonic clonic seizures (grand mal epilepsy)….DOC carbamezioine or phenytoin
Absence siezures (petit mal epilepsy)……. Ethosuximide
Myoclonic seizures …. Valproic acid
Febrile seizures…. Diazepam
Status epileptic us……diazepam fosphenytoin
Gingival hyoerplasia….. Phenytoin
Drug of choice for trigeminal neuralgia.,… Carbamazepine
Gabapentin can be used for post herpetic neuralgia
MAC values of inhalational anesthesitcs show potency of drug …. Higher MAC lower potency …. Nitrous oxide high MAC less potent halothane low MAC more potent
Blood gas partition coefficient shows rate of onset and recovery…. Lower coefficient faster onset and recovery and vice versa….. Halothane high value and nitrous oxide lower value of blood gas partition coefficient….. Fast onset and recovery for nitrous oxide
Good analgesic but poor anesthetic…… Nitrous oxide
Halothane can lead to hepatitis and malignant hyperthermia
Desflurane causes bronchoconstriction by having irritant effect on respiratory tract
Good anathetic and poor analgesic…. Thiopentone
Action of thiopentone finished when ….. Redistribution of drug
Ketamine …. Dissociative anesthetic ..,. Antagonizes NMDA receptors….. Can cause hallucinations during recovery and can sensitize myocardium to catecholamines
Fentanyl opioid analgesic …. Adverse effect chest wall rigidity
Fentanyl used for cardiothoracic surgeries
Neuroleptic anesthesia….. Anetgesia acquired when combination of fentanyl droperidol and nitrous oxide is given
Neuroleptic analgesia …. Combination of fentanyl and droperidol
Anesthetic which doesnt need antiemetic to prevent post anesthesia is ….. Propofol….. Faster induction and recovery…..used for day surgeries
Local anesthetics cannot act in infection site coz of formation of charged drug which cannot enter the cell
Local anethsetics accompanied by epinephrine or alpha agonist….. To decrease systemic effects and to decrease required dose
Fibres anesthesized on this manner…. Type C followed by B And then type A …. Recovery in opposite direction
Pain fibers are first to get anesthetized
Patient reached to surgical anestheisa state or not is checked by absence of eyelash reflex
Skeletal muscle relaxants tubocuraraine …. Histamine release
Mivacurium short acting
Antidote for these non depolarizing muscle relaxants (curare) …… Neostigmine
When skeletal muscle relaxation starts it start with smaller muscles like that of extraoccular and diaphragm is the last one to get paralysed and recovery is in reverse manner
Drug used for the treatment of malignant hyperthermia…. Dantrolene
Rationale of Combination of levodopa with carbidopa….. Decreased systemic side effects and decreased dose required
Drugs which are dopaminergic agonists can lead to drug induced psychosis
Bromocriptine is a dopamine agonist .. Used for parkinsonism as well as hyperprolactinemia treatment
Bromocriptine causes erythromelalgia
Amantadine causes livedoreticularis
Anticholnergic drugs cannot improve bradykinesis
Antipsychotic drugs …. Positive symptoms ….typical antipsychotic
Negative symptoms….. Atypical antipsychotic
Extra pyramidal symptoms are reversible and treated by giving antimuscarinic drugs….. Drug induced parkinsonism
Tarfive dyskinesia by antipsychotic dugs…. Irreversible …… Can prevent further progression by shifting from typical to atypical antipsychotic …… Anticholinerguc dugs will aggravate the condition
Antipsychotic drugs cause ….. Hyperprolactinemia
Haloperidol… Neuroleptic malignant syndrome
Thioridazone… Retinal deposits
Ziprasidone increase Qt interval
Clozapine ….. Agranulocytosis…. Monitored bybregular CBC
Morphine used for pulmonary odema and crushinggg pain of MI
All effects of opiod analgesics show dependence except constipation and miosis
All opiod anlgeics do miosis except mepridine which causes mydriasis
When written in scenario pinpoint pupil it means it is opioid overdose
Drug of choice for acute opioid overdose ….. Nalaxone
Dextromethorphin and codene used for cough
Loperamide and diphenoxylate used for diarrhea
TCAs … Impiramine also used for urinary urgency
Clomipramine used for obsessive compulsive disorder but drug of choice is SSRIs
Duloxitine for chronic neuropathic pains
Hypertensive emergency when combination of MAO inhibitors and TCAs
Serotonin syndrome when combination of MAOs with SSRIs
sSRIs…. Sexual dysfunction sleep disorders seizures (flouxitene) serotonin syndrome
Flouxitine has major drug drug interactions so not usedin combination of drugs