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General Pharmacology Important MCQ Points for Medical Students

General Pharmacology Important MCQ Points for Medical Students. If you want to download the General Pharmacology Important Points/Notes for SEQs too , you can download the General Pharmacology Notes here.

Important MCQ points of General Pharmacology by Dr. Moneeb Ashraf ( SIMS)

What the body does to the drug… Pharmacokinetics……. Absorption distribution metabolism excretion
What the drug does to the body …. Pharmacodynamics…. Mechanism of action pharmacological effects clinical uses adverse effects
Study of dosages of drugs….. Posology
Atropine from atropabeladona … Morphine from opium… Digitalis from fox glove
Chemical constituent of the drug which is the reason for its therapeutic effect …. Active principle
Active principle plus excipient…. Drug
No active principle just excipients….. Placebo dummy drug
Alkaloids… Nitrogenous bases bitter in taste sparingly soluble in water have prefix ine morphine nictonine lobeline
Tertiary alkaloids…. Uncharged…. Lipid soluble …can enter CNS …. Physostigmine
Quaternary alkaloids… Charged…water soluble… Can’t cross blood brain barrier
Glycoside composed of sugar and non sugar part…. Active component non sugar part genin which is steroid nucleus … Cardiac glycoside digitalis
First pass metabolism…. Presystemic metabolism of administered drug….. Propranolol lidocaine nitroglycerine extensive first pass metabolism….. Sites gut wall and liver….. Decreases bioavailability of drugs
Unchanged fraction or percentage of administered drug that reaches systemic circulation is ….. Bioavailability …… Bioavailability for IV route is 1 or 100%
Longest duration of action …… Intradermal route
Movement of drug or processes involved in movement of drug from site of administration to systemic circulation…… Absorption …. Factors are very imp…. Most imp effect of pH
Acidic drugs absorbed from acidic medium and basic drugs from alkaline medium….
Henderson hesalbach equation
When pH =pKa 50% ionized 50 % unionized drug
Outcomes of metabolism…… Active to inactive drug…lipid soluble to water soluble .. Inactive to active prodrug….. Active to another active metabolite
Phase I oxidation reduction hydrolysis
Oxidation microsomal enzyme dependant or non microsomal
Microsomal enzymes in smooth endoplasmic reticulum . enzyme induction .. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum enlarged
Non microsomal enzymes in mitochondria
phase II conjugation reactions
Enzyme inducers …. Rifampin pheytoin carbamazepine phenobarbitone
Enzyme inhibitors.. . cimetidine ketoconazole valproic acid grape fruit juice
When toxicity of acidic drug …. Urinary excretion increased by alkalinizing the urine bybsodium bicarbonate
When toxicity by basic drug ….. Acidify urine giving ammonium chloride
Loading dose dependant on vd and maintainence dose dependant on Clarence
Half life determines two parameters … Time to reach steady state conc and dosage interval
Steady state conc reached after 5 half lives
Parameters obtained from graded dose response curve….. EC50.. Maximal efficacy… Kd…. Slectivity of drugs
Ec 50 parameter of potency of drug
Parameters obtained from quantal dose response curve…. ED50.. LD50…TD 50….therapeutic index therapeutic window
ED50 parameter of potency
Rest parameter of safety of drug
In the presence of competitive antagonist on graded dose response curve …. Shift towards right maximal efficacy remains same EC50 increased potency decreased
Shift towards left is by potentiation
Kd more than EC 50 spare receptors present