MBBS 1st Professional Exam (Part-2nd)
1. Describe the development of permanent kidney?
2. What is Horseshoe kidney?
3. A new born shows opacity of both lens , What is the anomaly and what is the embryological basis of this condition?
4. Name the derivatives of 2nd pharyngeal arch?
5. What are the causes of craniofacial defects?
6. Give silent features of Pierre Robin Syndrome?
7. Give the development of thyroid Gland and the anomalies related to it?
8. Give the development of testis and the defects usually occurs in its development?
9. What is “indifferent Gonads” and how these develop into ovary?
10. Describe the development of toungue?
11. Describe the development of Respiratory system?
12. Enumerate the derivatives of 1st 2nd 3rd and 4th pharyngeal arch in tabulated form?
13. Name the facial Prominences? How do these contribute in the formation of face?
14. Give the development of stomach and what do You mean by the term “congenital hypertrophic stenosis” ?
15. Apediatrician was called in labour room to examin a newborn with sever respiratory distress syndrome. Physical examination revealed Flatttened abdomen and gut sounds over the left side of the thorax. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia was diagnosed which was confired on ultra sound….!
(a) Mention the developmental defect in the case and the reason for the sign and symptoms?
(b) Name the 4 sources of development of diaphragm?
16. How the neural tube is developed? Explain the histogenesis in the neural tube that leads to the development of the spinal cord and mention the positional changes in spinal cord till adult age?
17. How mammary glands develops ? Give the account on congenital diaphragmatic hernia?
18. A mother brings her 5year old daughter to the physician complaining that the child still seems to regularly wet herself despite toilet-trained, the physician order an IV PYELOGRAM which demonstrates a complete duplication of her ureter on right side. Although one ureter ones normally in the bladder, the other opens ectopically into the vagina.
(a) What is the embryological basis for this?
(b) What embryological parts give rise to the ureter? Name the structures arising from it?
19. Describe the development of mouth and lips? 3 malformations of lips?
20. What is macrostomia and microstomia?
21. Name different of Aorta and development of these? Also draw the diagram!
22. What is the nerve supply of the toungue and co-relate this supply with its development?
23. Enlist the differences in the embryological origin , artial supply, venous drainage and the nerve supply of Anal canal above and below the pectinate line ? Why the internal hemoroids are painless?
24. A 5 year old girl was brought to the hospital with the history of turning blue on crying and exertion. Investigations revealed that she had tetrology of fallot?
(a) Give the classical symptoms and their embryological basis?
25. A 2 day old infant was brought to the pediatrician with the complaint of drooling of the saliva at rest and regurgitation of milk when fed. Investigations revealed a Fistula between lower part of the esophagous and trachea, however the upper part os esophagous was blind ended…!
(a) Give the embryological reason of this congenital anomaly mentioning the aproxx time when it is caused.
(b) Name the associated complications with this anomaly that may occur in
1. Prenatally in pregnant women.
2. Postnatally in infants. Also give the reasons…?
26. Give the stages of maturation of the lungs?
27. Write a note on cleft palate?
Contributed by : Hafiz Bilal
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