105 sorted out Biochemistry 2nd year MBBS OSPE questions for practical examination. The Best and most common Questions for OSPE from past papers of UHS
Note : At the end of the post there is PDF Download link of all 105 questions.
1-What is daily requirement of calcium in adults ? .5
2-Give three factors which decrease the calcium absorption. 1.5
- High phosphate content
3-What is pH meter ? 2
Ans: pH meter is a device which correct determination of pH is performed. The device has glass electrode sensitive to [H+] but not other cations such as Na+ and K+.
4- How will you detect blood urine ? 3
Ans : By following ways :
- Blood in urine is detected by benzidine test.1
- Take 3 ml of benzidine solution in test tube.
- Add 2 ml of urine.
- Add 1 ml of hydrogen peroxide.
- Appearance of blue or green color indicates the presence of blood in urine.
5- what is the name of the final common pathway of oxidation of carbohydrates .fats and proteins metabolism and where it takes place ?
Ans : citric acis cycle or krebs cycle or tricarboxlic acid ( TCA cycle) , it takes place in liver .
6- Enlist three hormones which increase the absorption of glucose . ? 2
- Ans : Thyroid hormone
- Adrenal cortex
- Anterior pituitary
7- Write four cases of hypercalcaemia ? 2
- Malignancy ( bony metastases e.g. breast ,lung,prostate ,kidney ,thyroid )
- Parathyroid hormone abnormalities
- Higher bone turn over ( thyrotoxicosis,immobilization)
- Drugs ( thiazides,vitamin A toxicity)
8- what is the significant of creatinine clearance ? 2
Ans : Decreased creatinine clearance is the early detection of functional impairment of kidney.
9- For performing 24 hours creatinine clearances which indications are required mention two . also mention normal serum level.
Ans : Indications :
- Abnormalities in kidney function test
- Calculation of the dose of a toxic drug
- Potentinal kidney donors.
The normal creatinen level in serum is .1.4 mg/dl
In males : .7 —-1.4 mg/dl
In females : .4 —–1.2 mg/dl
10- Name the isoenzymes of LDH in the body .
Ans : Five isoenzymes of LDH include LDH-1 to LDH-5
11-LDH requires which coenzyme ?
Ans : NAD
12- How will you perform the selivanoff`s test given carbohydrate sample . Write the results.
13- Enumerate the metabolic significance of Hexose Monophosphate shunts (HMS ) ?
Ans : Formation of NADPH
Formation of ribose 5-Phosphate
14- What is Alkaline Phosphatase ? what is the role in human body ?
Ans : Alkaline Phosphatse is a hydrolase enzyme responsible for removing phosphate groups from nucleotides and proteins. In human body,alkaline phosphatase is present in all tissues , but is particularly conc. In Liver , Bile ducts, Kidney , Bone and Placenta.
15- Give the diagnostic importance of A kaline Phosphatase l?
Ans : A kaline Phosphatase levels in plasma will rise with large bile duct obstruction .
16- Define monosaccharides.
Ans : Monosaccharides are those carbohydrates that cannot be hydrolyzed into simpler carbohydrates.
17- How monosaccharides can be subdivided ?
Ans : Monosaccharides can be subdivided upon the number of carbon items they have i.e; trioses , tetroses , pentoses , hexoses , heptoses , or octoses and depending on whether the aldehyde or ketone group is present I;e. aldoses or ketoses .
18- Name the amino acids containing acidic groups or their amides as side chains .
Ans : Aspartic acid , Aspargine , Glutamic acid , Glutamine .
19- what are zwitterions ?
Ans : Molecular species that contain an equal number of ionizable groups of opposite charge and consequently bear no net charge are called zwitterions.
20- What is normal blood ammonia level? Mention the fate of ammonia.
Ans : Normal NH3 Level of blood is 40-70 micro gram/100ml
Fate : NH3 is converted to urea and excreted in urine.
NH3 is also excreted in urine indirectly as NH4+ ions.
21- What is difference between free and conjugated bilirubin ?
Ans : Free bilirubin is bound to albumin
Conjugated bilirubin is blund to glucoronic acid.
22- Which enzyme is responsible for comjugation ?
Ans : Glucuronyl transferase
23- What is importance of glucose tolrerance test GTT ?
- Diagnosing milder and early cases of diabetes
- Investigating a case of symptomless , lag type glucosuria , such as renal glucosuria .
- Certain endocrine dysfunction e.g , hyperthyroidism.
- It is helpful in following course and treatment in initial diabetes melilitus.
24- Which enzyme is specific for obstructive jaundice.
Ans : Alkaline phosphate
25 – Which fraction of Bilirubin is increased in Obstrictibe Jaundice ?
Ans : Conjugated Bilirubin
26- How much grams of NaCl is required to prepare 1 liter of .5 M nacl solution ?
When : Molar Mass of NaCl =58.44
Ans : 29.22 grams
27 – Which test is used to detect reducing sugars in urine ?
Ans : Benedicts test
28- Give the value of specific gravity of normal urine ?
Ans : It is 1.015—1.025
29—What precautions are taken while blood sample of HIV positive patient ?
- Wear double gloves
- Use sterilized syringes
- Discard syringe after taking sample
- Proper handling of syringe
30- What are difrent parts of given spectrophotometer ?
- Light source monochromator
- Sample chamber
31- Name at least two endocrine disorders that produce olvosuria ?
Ans : 1) Lack of insulin 2) Hyperthyroidsim 3) Cushing syndrome
32_ What is significance of GTT ?
Ans : To differentiate between impaired glucose tolerance and Diabetes Mellitus.
33 – What is normal level of K+ in Blood ?
Ans : It varies from 3.5 to 5.5 mmol/L and may slightly higher in newborn.
34 – what is the function of K+ ?
Ans : Normal Heart function , enzyme reaction , nerve muscle excitability .
35 – what are prerequisites before oral GTT ?
- Patient should be on average carbohydrate diet three days prior to test
- No smoking , any insulin or oral hypoglycemic drugs before GTT
- Should be with overnight fast ( 8-10 hours )
- Complete physical or mental rest
36 – Identify the nature of labeled blood sample in the syringe . How will you handle and preserve the given sample. ?
- Student identify it as “High Risk Sample” of HIV/HCV/HBV infected patient.
- Precautionary measures taken are :
- Wear the gloves
- Cut and dispose the the used syringe
- Label the sample HIV/HCV/HBV positive
37 – Define molar mass and molarity?
- Molar mass is the mass in grams of one mole of a substance
- One molar concentration contains the mass one mole in grams dissolved in 1 liter of solution.
38 – Urea is the major end product of nitrogen catabolism in humans. Enumerate any four enzymes in the synthesis of urea.
- Carbomyle –phosphate synthase -1
- Arginosuccinate synthetase
39 – what is the normal concentration of total plasma protein ?
Ans – Normal total plasma protein concentration is 6 – 8 g/dl
40 – Write two causes of hypoprotenemia?
Ans – Its causes are mainutrition , protein losing enteropathy or nephritic syndrome.
41 – Enumerate at least four parameters to assess liver function of patients ?
- Serum bilirubin
- Alkaline phosphatse
- Total protein
- Serum albumin
- Albumin globin ratio
42 – Write the clinical importance of spectrophotometer. Give three examples.
Ans – a) Hemoglobin estimation
B_) Examples : Albumin and globin ratio , lipid profile , protein in urine
43 _ A 43 years old male attended the vascular surgery out patients for peripheral vascular disease. He was a non smoker but had undergone a coronary artery bypass graft the year before. His cholesterol was 8.7 mmol/L;Triglyceride , 9.1 mmol/L and HDL cholesterol was .86 mmol/L with apliprotein E genotype E2/E2. What is your diagnosis ?
Ans – He ilipoptes suffering from type III hyper lipoproteinaemia (familial dysbetallpoproteinaemia oor broad –B hyperlipidaemia .
44 – what is osteoporosis ?
Ans – Osteoprosis occours when there is an imbalance between bone formation and old bone resorptin. If calcium intake is not sufficient or if the body does not absorb enough calcium from the diet , bone production and bonr tissue may suffer .
45 – Give the hormonal array for management of serum calcium levels .
Ans – Serum calcium levels are increased by action of Calcitriol and parathormone. While serul calcium levels are decreased by calcitonin .
46 – what is normal level of ammonia in blood ?
Ans – normal level is 40-50 µg/dl
47 – Give symptoms of hyperammonemia
Ans : Symptoms are :
- Blurring of vision
- Slurring of speech
- Flapping tremers
- Coma and detah
48 – what is the end product of purine metabolism ?
Ans : Uric Acid
49 – name at least two pathological conditions in which its value value increases ?
Ans _ Gout , arthritis , leukemia
50 – What are plasma immunoglobulins and where are they synthesized ?
Ans : Plasma Immunoglobulins are defense proteins. They are synthesized and secreted into plasma by plasma B cells
51 – Elaborates types and structure of immunoglobulins .
Ans : They are IgG , Ig M , IgD and IgE. IgG and IgE are monomeric IgD and IgA are dimeric . IgM is pentameric
52 – Name a common non-reducing disaccharide along with its monosaccharide compnents ?
Ans : Sucrose , components are : Fructose and Glucose
53 _ Why Sucrose is called invert sugar ?
Ans ; Sucrose is dextrorotatory and yield glucose upon hydroloysis and this thing resulting mixture is levorotatory . Hence the name Invert Sugar
54 – Define stereoisomers ?
Ans : Carbohydrates that have the same structural formula but differ in spatial configuration are known as stereoisomers .
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