Q1-How Bilirubin is made water soluble in Body ? 1
Ans: How Bilirubin is made water soluble by its conjugation with glucoronic acid.
Q2- What is the color of Bilirubin ? 1
Ans : The color of bilirubin is Yellow .
Q3- What is Calcitriol , Calcitriol synthesis occours in which organ ?
Which enzyme is required for its synthesis ?
Ans : Calcitriol is the active form of Vitamin D ( 1,25 DHCC)
Calcitriol synthesis occours in Kidney from 25-Hydroxycholecactrol
Q4- Give four conditions in which hypocalcemia may develop ? 2
- Chronic renal failure
- Psedudo Hypoparathyrodism
- Vitamin D deficiency
Q5: Which amino acid is mainly is oxidatively deamionated in liver ? 1
ANs : Glutamate is mainly oxidatively deaminated In liver.
Q6: Which enzyme catalyzes this reaction ?1
Ans : Glutamate dehydrogenase catalayzes the oxidative deamination of glutmate.
Q7:Bile salts and bile pigments are seen in excess quantities in urine in which condition ?
ANs : In case of biliary tract obstruction ( Obstructive Jaundice ) 2
Q 8:How many isozymes of LDH are found in body ?
ANs :Five isozymes of LDH are found in body ( LDH1 â€“LDH5)
Q 9:LDH requires which coenzyme ?
Ans :NAD is required is by LDH
Q 10 : In which four conditions hypercholesterolemia may be commonly seen ?
- Diabetes Mellitus
- Biliary tract obstruction
- Nephrotic syndrome
Q 11: For synthesis of creatine in body which standard amino acids are used ?
Ans : Glycine , Arginine and methionine
Q 12 : Degradation of heme to biliverdin releases which gas ?
Ans : Carbon monoxide (CO) is released .
Q 13 : Which enzyme catalyzed the conversion of biliverdin to bilirubin in body ?
Ans : Biliverdin Reductase
Q 14 : Name any two plasma proteins with antiprotease activity .
- Alpha 2 microglobulin
Q 15 : Name the isozymes of creatine kinase .
Ans : Isozymes of CPK are CK-MB , CK-MM and CK-BB
Q 16 : What is the significance of CK-MB ?
Ans : It is raised in the patients of Myocardial Infraction
Q 17 : What are the precautions to take before performing oral glucose tolerance test ?
- Patients should be an average carbohydrate diet three days prior to test.
- Patients should fast overnight (10-12 hrs fast)
- Patients should avoid insulin or other drugs which can interfere with carbohydrate metabolism
- Patient should not take breakfast on the day of test.
Q 18: What is renal glucosuria and renal threshold ?
Ans: In Renal Glucosuria , glucose is extracted in urine due to lowering of renal threshold . The blood glucose levels are within normal limits.
- Renal Threshold is the maximum blood level of any substance after which it starts appearing in the urine. It is 180Â mg/dl for glucose .
Q 19 : Which plasma protein binds to extacorpuscular hemoglobin ?
Q 20 : Which plasma protein principally transports iron ?
Q 21 : Which ketoacid is formed by the transamination of aspartate catalyzed by AST ?
Ans : Oxaloacetate is produced .
Q 22 : Name any two conditions in which elevated AST activity may observed in plasma .
Ans : Myocardical Infraction , Alcohloic Hepatits , Dermatomyopathies .
Q 23 : What is the normal range of serum calciu ?
Ans : It ranges from 8.5 -10.5 mg/dl ; some books mention 9-11 mg/dl.
Q 24 : In which form calcium is present in plasma ?
Asns : In plasma it is present in three forms Ionized calcium which is active form , protein bound mainly with albumin , and complexed with citerates , phosphates and bicarbonates .
Q 24 : What are the sources of TWO nitrogen atoms of urea molecule synthesized in liver via urea cycle ?
Q 25 : What is the effect of increased activity of glutathione reductase ?
Ans ; For its activity glutathione reductase requires NADPH from HMP pathway leading to increased production of riboseÂ 5 phosphate which in turns provides more PRPPleading to overproduction of purines causing hyperurecemia .
Q 26 : Name any two sources of ammonia In our body ?
Ans : Sources are : Transamination and Deamination of amino acids form catabolism of nucleic acidsÂ , from the urea by the action of bacterial enzymes in GIT etc .
Q 27 ; What is normal urea conc. In plasma ?
Ans : 20 -50 mg/dl
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