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Q1. Define cardiac cycle. What are its phases? Compare and contrast the features of iso- volumic  contraction and relaxation. *****
Q2. Draw and label the phases of action potential  of ventricular and SA nodal fiber. What do you understand by prepotential?*****
Q3. Draw and label the various components of cardiac conduction system along with timings of conduction of impulse. what do you understand by AV nodal delay? What is its importance?***
Q4. Draw and label normal ECG. Describe the waves, segments and intervals of normal ECG?*****
Q5. What do you understand by AV blocks? Draw the rough ECG findings of 3 degrees of AV blocks. what is stocks-Adams Syndrome?***
Q6. Compare the features of 1st and 2nd heart sounds. Enlist 2 conditions each which produce diastolic and systolic murmers.*****
Q7. Explain briefly the effect of sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system on the activity of heart.** . Describe the effects of K+ and Ca++ ions concentration in ECF on the functioning of heart.
Q9. Describe ventricular pressure and volume changes during cardiac cycle. ****
Q10. Describe the Atrial pressure changes during cardiac cycle. What is the role of atria in ventricular filling?***
Q11. Define and explain the Frank-Starling mechanism of heart function regulation?***
Q12.How many types of leads are used for ECG recording? Briefly explain them. What is Einthoven’s Law?**
Q13.Why SA node is called as the normal pacemaker of heart? What is meant by ectopic pacemaker? What is the clinical importance of override suppressive mechanism of SA node on all other parts of cardiac conduction system?***

Q14. Enlist the properties of cardiac muscle fibers? Explain the mechanism of autorrhythmicity seen in heart.*****
Q15. What do you understand by ventricular fibrillation? What is its mechanism of its  development? Why it is called as the most serious of all arrhythmias? How this may be stopped?***
Q16. Define sinus tachycardia and sinus bradycardia. Mention physiological and pathological causes of both of these arrhythmias. why athletes have physiological bradycardia?**
Q17. Define premature contraction of heart. What are its types and possible causes? What is the relation of ‘compensatory pause’ and ‘pulse deficit’ to premature contractions?**
Q18. Define the following terms:**
a. Pacemaker  potential or pre-potential . b. Windkessel effect. c. Sinus arrhythmia. d. Phonocardiogram e. Tipple rhythm or Gallop Rhythm
Q19. Give rationale or logical basis for the following phenomena of cardiac physiology?**
a. Machinary murmer  in PDA. b. 3rd and 4th heart sounds. c. Incisura seen in aortic pressure curve.  d. Rapid transmission in purkinje system. e. AV nodal Delay.
Q20. Give minimum and maximum pressures in the following structures during cardiac cycle.***
a. Right and left atrium. b. Right and left ventricle. c. Aorta. d. Pulmonary artery.
Q21. Draw and label cardiac cycle.***
Q22. What do you understand by stenosis  and incompetence of valves. What types of cardiac murmers are produced in:
a. Mitral  Stenosis.  b. Mitral incompetence. c. Aortic stenosis.

d. Aortic incompetence.  e. PDA.