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Q.1.a): define pH. What is the influence of pH on the structure and function of biological molecules? 0.5, 1.5
B). Name the processes which help in the transport of substances across the cell membrane. Enumerate four important factors that determine net diffusion of a substance across the biological membrane. 1, 1.
Q2. A. Write Henderson Hasselbalch equation. B. Give its applications. (1, 4)
Q3: Explain briefly how volume of water is regulated in the body. (5)
Q.4: a). what are G proteins? How are G proteins activated and inactivated? 2
B). Define pH and buffer solution. Give four examples of body buffers along with the site where they act the best? 2
Q.5: a).What are intracellular events following the activation of Gq proteins? 2
Q6. Patient was brought in OPD with the history of excessive urination for the last 24 hours. On examination he was dehydrated. His urine was diluted and specific gravity was below normal. His renal profile was found to be normal.
A. What is the most probable diagnosis?
B. What would be the effect on extracellular osmolarity of this patient?
C. How cells will respond to this change? 1, 2, 1
Q.7 : b). Define osmotic pressure. What is the importance of osmotic pressure exerted by plasma proteins? 2
Q.8.a): Define isotonic, hypotonic, and hypertonic solutions. 1.5
B). Enumerate body buffers. How do these help in buffering volatile acids. 2.5
Q.9.a): enumerate the ways by which acid base balance of the body is maintained. 2
B). Enlist the processes which help in transport of the substances across the cell membrane. 2

Q.10: a). Define disaccharides. Give three examples. Write down their products of hydrolysis. 2
B). Draw the structure of cholesterol. Give its three physiochemical properties and functions in the body. 2
Q.11: a). A young lady presents to a clinic with complaints of alternating diarrhea and constipation. She complains of abdominal discomfort and bloating that is relieved with her bowel movement. She states that her episodes are worse at times of stress. She denies of any blood in her stool. Her physical examination is all within normal range. She has been prescribed cellulose containing dietary supplement, which her doctor says will increase the bulk of stools. She was diagnosed as a case of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).
I). what is the biochemical mechanism of this dietary supplement’s effect on the intestine? 1
Ii). what is the structure of cellulose? 0.5
Iii). what is hemicellulose? 0.5
Q.12: (a). Differentiate between homopolysaccharides and heteropolysaccharides. (1 marks)
(b). Describe briefly the functions of glycosaminoglycans in our body. (3 marks)
Q.13:b).What do you understand by omega- 3 fatty acids? What are the principal biological functions of prostacyclin and leukotriene B4? 2
Q.14.a): define isotonic solution. Give normal value and importance of plasma colloidal osmotic pressure. 1, 2, 1.
Q.15. A): define disaccharides. Give one example. What is meant by lactose intolerance? 1, 2, 1.
Q.16. A): define homoplysaccharides. Name four of them with one major function they perform. 2
B): classify phospholipids and write down their four important biological functions. 2
Q.17: define with examples:
A). Saturated fatty acids. 1
B). Unsaturated fatty acids. 1

C). nutritionally essential fatty acids. 2
Q.18. A): Give the chemistry of sucrose and lactose.1,1
B): What is lactose intolerance? 2
Q.19: Describe oxidation and reduction of monosaccharides along with examples. Describe important functions of hyaluronic acid in body? 1+1
Q.20: what are glycosaminoglycans (GAGs)? Enumerate various classes of GAGs. 1, 3.
Q.21: A female patient was brought to outdoor department with generalized edema which was of gradual onset. She belonged to a poor family having six children. The youngest one was 1 year of age and was being breastfed. On clinical examination she looked pale and malnourished. Her heart was normal with no history of blood pressure (hypertension). Her labs showed low plasma albumin levels (proteins). Explain biochemical cause of edema in this patient. 5
Q.22: classify amino acids on the basis of their side chains(R groups). What are standar6d and non standard amino acids”? 3, 1.
Q.23: Classify amino acids on the basis of their side chains (R groups). What are standard and non standard amino acids? 3, 1.
Q.24: what is the role of amino acid side chain (R group) in protein folding? Briefly describe the relationship of protein structure to its functions. Give at least one example. 2
Q.25: a). What is selenocsteine? Write down its significance. 1.5
B). A young girl consulted nutritionist to discuss about vegetarian diet to loose weight. He advised her diet which contained sufficient amount of essential amino acids along with carbohydrates, fat, proteins, vitamins and minerals. He also advised that she must take six classes of water daily, so that she can keep up good health.
I). What do you understand by nutrition ally essential amino acids? 0.5
Ii). Enlist essential amino acids for humans? 1.5
Iii). Which of the essential amino acids contains sulphur in its structure? 0.25
Iv). Which of the essential amino acids is purely ketogenic? 0.25

Q.25:a). Define Secondary structure of proteins. Differentiate between alpha α helix and beta β pleated sheets.
B. Give biochemical basis of
(i) Alzheimers disease (ii) Creutzfeldt – Jacob disease 2+2
Q.26: a). what is the role of amino acid side chain (R group) in protein folding? Briefly describe the relationship o protein structure to its functions. Give at least one example. 2
B).What are the different types of immunoglobulins? Give clinical significance of IgG and IgE. 1, 1
Q.27: a).name different types of secondary structure present in proteins. Explain any two of them. 0.5, 2
B). Define and enlist essential amino acids. 1
C). Define and write four non- standard amino acids. 0.5
Q.28: a). what are simple proteins? 2
B). Give structural and chemical characteristics of collagen. 2
Q.29: a).Define and enumerate essential amino acids.2
B).How secondary structure of proteins is formed? 2
Q.30: define and classify phospholipids. Enlist their biochemical functions. 2, 2
Q.31: a).Draw structure of cholesterol. Enlist its biochemical functions.2
B). Enumerate bile salts .what is their function? 2
Q.32: a).name the nitrogenous bases found in RNA. What are the major classes of RNA? Write down characteristic features of any two classes. 2
B). what is lactose intolerance? 2
Q.33: a). What are the characteristic structural features and functions of m RNA and t RNA? 2
Q.34: a). Define nucleosides and nucleotides. Write down the important functions of nucleotides in human body. 2
B). Write down the role of selenium as antioxidant. 2

Q.35: a).What is the structure of DNA? 2
B). what are mutations? List various types. 2
Q.36: draw the structure of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) .enumerate four functions of ATP. 2, 2
Q.37: A person wakes up from his sleep due to severe excruciating pain in the ball of his big toe. His serum level of uric acid is raised. And the synovial fluid aspirated from affected joint shows needle shaped crystals. What is your most probable diagnosis? What are the causes of this disease? What is treatment of this disease? 1+1+1
Q.38: A young male of age 6 years presents in Psychiatry department of a hospital with complaints of mental retardation, aggressive behavior, learning disability and involuntary movements.
A) What will be your probable diagnosis? (1 mark)
B) What blood test will you suggest in this case? (1.5 mark)
C) What is the biochemical cause of disease? (1.5 mark)
Q.39: a). Define with one example of nucleoside and nucleotide. 2
B). Give four functions of nucleotides inhuman body. 2
Q.40: (a). A person wakes up from his sleep due to severe excruciating pain in the ball of his big toe. His serum level of uric acid is raised. And the synovial fluid aspirated from affected joint shows needle shaped crystals. (1+1 marks)
I- What is your most probable diagnosis?
II- What are the causes of this disease?
(b). Differentiate between various types of jaundice in a tabulated form. (2 marks)
Q.41: Define and explain allosteric regulation of enzyme activity. What do you understand by Km value of enzymes? 3+1 = 4 marks
Q.42: a). Give diagnostic importance of the following enzymes: ALP, ALT, amylase. 1.5
B). How does covalent modification of enzyme molecule influence the enzyme activity? 2.5

Q.43: a).what do you understand by coenzymes and isoenzymes. 1.5, 1.5
B). Give diagnostic importance of alkaline phosphates. 1
Q.44: differentiate between the following:
A).competitive and non- competitive inhibitors. 2
B). Isoenzymes and coenzymes. 2
Q.45: A). How can you differentiate competitive inhibition from non- competitive inhibition of enzyme activity? 2
B). Enumerate two clinically important enzymes inhibitors along with example of enzymes inhibited by them.2
Q.46: a). what are isoenzymes? How do they help in the clinical diagnosis of myocardial infrction?2
B). Define allosteric enzymes and Km value of enzymes. 2
Q.47: comment on the following parameters in hemolytic and obstructive jaundice:
A). Plasma bilirubin (conjugated and unconjugated). 1
B). ALT, AST and ALP. 1
C). Urinary bilirubin and urobilinogen. 1
D). Colour of feces. 1
Q: 48. A). Name the hemoproteins along with their principal biological functions. 2
B). How bilirubin is conjugated? What is its fate following its releases into the intestine? 2
Q.49: a).How are enzymes classified? 2
B). Enlist properties of enzymes. 2
Q: 50. Compare the properties of hemoglobin and myoglobin. Also draw oxygen dissociation curves of hemoglobin and myoglobin. 3+1
Q: 51. A).Draw various steps of heme synthesis?
Q.52: What are thallasemias? Describe various types of alpha thalassemia?
Q.53: a).Draw various steps of heme synthesis?
B). What is normal serum-bilirubin level? Differentiate between various types of jaundice.

Q.54: a patient developed complete obstruction of common bile duct. What changes will occur to his:
A). Blood plasma bilirubin and enzymes. 2
B). Urine bilirubin and urobilinogen. 2
Q.55: what are hemoglobin C disease and hemoglobin SC disease? 2, 2
Q No. 56. A. Write note on hemoglobinopathies. (2.5 marks)
b. Write the degradation products of Heme with its clinical significance. (2 marks)
Q.57: a). Name the hemoproteins along with their principal biological functions. 2
B). How bilirubin is conjugated? What is its fate following its releases into the intestine? 2
Q.58: a). What is calcitriol? How it is formed in body? 1, 1
B). Give biochemical changes in rickets. 2
Q.59: a). Give dietary sources, functions and storage of iron. 2
B). What do you know about hemosiderosis? 2
Q.60: A strict vegetarian recently underwent gastrectomy. Therefore, he developed progressive generalized weakness and fatigability. He was anemic and his blood film showed large immature red blood cells.
A. What dietary deficiency would you expect?
B. What will be the biochemical effects of this deficiency?
C. What is the possible treatment?
D. Give sources of this bio- molecule?
Q.61: enlist four nutritionally essential microminerals with their functions. 4
Q.62: a).give the biomedical importance of the following microminerals:
Iron, iodine, zinc and selenium. 4
Q.63: a).Give dietary sources of iron.
B). Enlist factors affecting the absorption of iron from GIT.
C). Enlist symptoms and signs of iron deficiency.

Q.64: a). Why does gamma carboxylation of glutamate residues of clotting proteins of vitamin K lead to platelet aggregation? 1.5
B). A middle age widower, living alone, consumes a diet exclusively composed of tea, toast, and sausages. He starts suffering from lethargy and tiredness and notices purplish bruises on his legs. He also develops swollen gums which bleed on touch. He goes to the doctor, where on general examination, he is also found to be anemic. Scurvy is diagnosed. 2.5
I). which important food group is missing from his diet?
Ii).the deficiency of which nutrient causes these symptoms?
Iii). What is the biochemical defect leading to bruising and bleeding gums?What is the cause of anemia?
Q.65: a). What is the mechanism of action of retinol in extraocular tissues? 2
B). A woman who suffers from chronic peptic ulcer undergoes gastrectomy. After some years she starts suffering from lethargy, tiredness, and pins and needle sensation in her lower limbs. The doctor on examination finds her to be anemic and diagnosis peripheral neuropathy. Her blood test reveals low Hb 8.1 gm/dl (normal is 12-16 gm/dl).peripheral smear shows macrocytosis. Her serum B12 level is also low.
I). Which vitamin is likely to be deficient and why? 0.5
Ii).Write down two reactions in the body in which this vitamin is required.0.5
Iii).What is folate trap hypothesis? 1
Iv). What is the biochemical defect undergoing neuropathy? 0.5
Q.66: HOW VITAMIN D id synthesized and activated in the body? Name the diseases that occur due to its deficiency. 2, 2.
Q. 67: a) Explain the role of Vitamin A in Visual pathway. 2
B) What Functions are attributed to Vitamin C in human body? 2
Q.68: a).name the vitamins which are involved in hemopoisis.1
B). What is the biochemical basis of megaloblastic anemia associated with dietary deficiency of folate and cobalamine. 0.5, 2.5
Q.69: a). Define the terms: 2
Body mass index,
basal metabolic rate,
waist to hip ratio,
thermogenic effect of food.
b). What is glycemic index of food? 2

Q.70: (a). Give different types of Beriberi with their signs and symptoms. (2 marks)
(b). Write the functions of Lecithins. (2 marks)

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